What is Central Nervous System Infections ?
Infections of the Central Nervous System (CNS) comprise meningitis (affecting the meninges), encephalitis (affecting brain parenchyma) and myelitis (affecting the spinal cord) or abscess (pus collection with in the brain parenchyma). Bacteria, fungi and viruses are the most common causes of CNS infections.
What are the symptoms of CNS infection ?
- Stiff neck
- Lethargy (exhaustion)
- Sensitivity to light
How is CNS infection diagnosed?
- Spinal tap or lumbar puncture – CSF Analysis for virus, bacteria, fungi and tuberculosis<
- Brain imaging with CT scan or MRI – To see for structural damage
- Electroencephalograph (EEG) – To rule out seizure activity
- Blood tests – Infective markers
- Brain biopsy – Only done when diagnosis is doubtful
How is CNS infection treated ?
- Antibiotics, Antiviral, Antifungal, Antitubercular agents depending on the etiology
- Corticosteroids - to reduce brain inflammation
- Anticonvulsants - to prevent or stop seizures
- Sedatives - for restlessness, aggressiveness, and irritability
- Intravenous fluids – to maintain hydration
- Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory
- Intervention for brain abscess